Additional Reading and Resources

  1. Baecher-Allan C, et al. Multiple Sclerosis: Mechanisms and immunotherapy. Neuron. 2018;97(4):742-68.
  2. Brownlee W, et al. Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: progress and challenges. Lancet. 2017;389(10076):1336-1346.
  3. Dargani N, et al. Multiple sclerosis: immunopathology and treatment update. Brain Sci. 2017;7(7):E78.
  4. Eriksson I, et al. The changing multiple sclerosis treatment landscape: impact of new drugs and treatment recommendations. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Feb 10. [Epub ahead of print].
  5. Costello K, et al. Recognizing nonadherence in patients with multiple sclerosis and maintaining treatment adherence in the long term. Medscape J Med. 2008;10(9):225.
  6. Karussis D. The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and the various related demyelinating syndromes: a critical review. J Autoimmun. 2014;48-49:134-42.
  7. Marcus JF, et al. Updates on clinically isolated syndrome and diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis. Neurohospitalist. 2013;3(2):65-80.
  8. Simon JH. MRI outcomes in the diagnosis and disease course of multiple sclerosis. Handb Clin Neurol. 2014;122:405-25.
  9. Sormani MP, et al. Can we measure long-term treatment effects in multiple sclerosis? Nat Rev Neurol. 2015;11(3):176-82.
  10. Tanasescu R, et al. Advances in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Biomed J. 2014;37(2):41-9.
  11. Thompson A, et al. Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: 2017 revisions of the McDonald criteria. Lancet Neurol. 2018;17(2):162-73.
  12. Toosy A, et al. Symptomatic treatment and management of multiple sclerosis. Handb Clin Neurol. 2014;122:513-62.
  13. Turner AP, et al. Injection anxiety remains a long-term barrier to medication adherence in multiple sclerosis. Rehabil Psychol. 2009;54:116–121.
  14. Wong J, et al. Adherence to multiple sclerosis disease-modifying therapies in Ontario is low. Can J Neurol Sci. 2011;38:429-433.


American Academy of Neurology –

The Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers –

National Multiple Sclerosis Society –

Multiple Sclerosis Association of America –

Multiple Sclerosis Foundation –

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke –